The ants of this subfamily resemble myrmicines in having a 2-segmented abdominal pedicel. They are distinguished from myrmicines by their large eyes, the configuration of the posterior portion of the clypeus, and the toothed pretarsal claws. The subfamily comprises 3 genera: Tetraponera, in the Old World tropics (Afrotropical, Oriental and Australian regions), with Pseudomyrmex and Myrcidris in the New World. These ants are arboreal, nesting in plant cavities, especially in hollow twigs and spines. They move at high speed when foraging on tree trunks or the ground. Some species have symbiotic relationships with particular host-plant species. Their stings are well developed and painful. P.S. Ward (1990, 2001) is progressibely revising the subfamily.